[67] Aquatic prey is most commonly taken at or near the water surface. This early definition included frigatebirds, cormorants, and sulids, as well as pelicans.

Many pelicans fish by swimming in cooperative groups. [109], The Moche people of ancient Peru worshipped nature. [46] They have a long neck and short stout legs with large, fully webbed feet. Monotypic. However, before he had finished, another pelican, on seeing such a strange piebald creature, killed him with its beak, and all such pelicans have been black and white ever since.

In reality, it often presses this onto its chest to fully empty the pouch. Pelecaniformes § Systematics and evolution, "The phylogenetic relationships of the extant pelicans inferred from DNA sequence data", 10.1675/1524-4695(2005)28[9:aootaw]2.0.co;2, "Phylogenetic Analysis of Pelecaniformes (Aves) Based on Osteological Data: Implications for Waterbird Phylogeny and Fossil Calibration Studies", "Zoological Nomenclature Resource: Pelecaniformes (Version 2.003)", 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T22697599A119401118.en, "Nomenclatural and Taxonomic Status of Fossil Birds Described by H. G. L. Reichenbach in 1852", "A New Species of Pelican (Aves: Pelecanidae) from the Lower Pliocene of North Carolina and Florida", "Brown Pelican breeding and nesting habits", "Functional Aspects of the Pneumatic System of the California Brown Pelican", "New fossil records of pelicans (Aves: Pelecanidae) from New Zealand", "Induced Drag Savings From Ground Effect and Formation Flight in Brown Pelicans", "Does a Pelican's Bill Hold More Than its Belly Can? [116], Elizabeth I of England adopted the symbol, portraying herself as the "mother of the Church of England". [36], The pink-backed pelican has a large population ranging over much of sub-Saharan Africa. The pelican consequently prepared to go to war against them by daubing himself with white clay as war paint. The former UCLA star has shown some signs through the first four games. [74] More recently, such predation at South African seabird colonies has impacted on the conservation of threatened seabird populations, especially crowned cormorants, Cape cormorants, and bank cormorants. An older version of the myth is that the pelican used to kill its young then resurrect them with its blood, again analogous to the sacrifice of Jesus. DNA sequencing of both mitochondrial and nuclear genes yielded quite different relationships; the three New World pelicans formed one lineage, with the American white pelican sister to the two brown pelicans, and the five Old World species the other. The male brings the nesting material, in ground-nesting species (which may not build a nest) sometimes in the pouch, and in tree-nesting species crosswise in the bill. [3], Parents of ground-nesting species sometimes drag older young around roughly by the head before feeding them. The diet of pelicans usually consists of fish,[51] but occasionally amphibians, turtles, crustaceans, insects, birds, and mammals are also eaten.

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[115] A reference to this mythical characteristic is contained for example in the hymn by Saint Thomas Aquinas, "Adoro te devote" or "Humbly We Adore Thee", where in the penultimate verse, he describes Christ as the loving divine pelican, one drop of whose blood can save the world. For example, in Africa, the pink-backed pelican generally takes fish ranging in size from fry up to 400 g (0.9 lb) and the great white pelican prefers somewhat larger fish, up to 600 g (1.3 lb), but in Europe, the latter species has been recorded taking fish up to 1,850 g (4.1 lb). [91], Great white pelicans on Dyer Island, in the Western Cape region of South Africa, were culled during the 19th century because their predation of the eggs and chicks of guano-producing seabirds was seen to threaten the livelihood of the guano collectors. [122], The medical faculties of Charles University in Prague also have a pelican as their emblem. Avian malaria is carried by the mosquito Culex pipens, and high densities of these biting insects may force pelican colonies to be abandoned. [81] Numbers of brown pelican plummeted in the 1950s and 1960s, largely as a consequence of environmental DDT pollution, and the species was listed as endangered in the US in 1970. [5] The name comes from the Ancient Greek word pelekan (πελεκάν),[6] which is itself derived from the word pelekys (πέλεκυς) meaning "axe". [39] Several Pelecanus species have been described from fossil material, including:[40], Pelicans are very large birds with very long bills characterised by a downcurved hook at the end of the upper mandible, and the attachment of a huge gular pouch to the lower. [a] The National Audubon Society estimates the global population of the brown pelican at 300,000. [14] Overall breeding success is highly variable. A 2007 report to the California Fish and Game Commission estimated that during the previous 20 years, some 500–1000 brown pelicans had been affected by oil spills in California. [3] The location of the breeding colony is constrained by the availability of an ample supply of fish to eat, although pelicans can use thermals to soar and commute for hundreds of kilometres daily to fetch food.

[67] Aquatic prey is most commonly taken at or near the water surface. This early definition included frigatebirds, cormorants, and sulids, as well as pelicans.

Many pelicans fish by swimming in cooperative groups. [109], The Moche people of ancient Peru worshipped nature. [46] They have a long neck and short stout legs with large, fully webbed feet. Monotypic. However, before he had finished, another pelican, on seeing such a strange piebald creature, killed him with its beak, and all such pelicans have been black and white ever since.

In reality, it often presses this onto its chest to fully empty the pouch. Pelecaniformes § Systematics and evolution, "The phylogenetic relationships of the extant pelicans inferred from DNA sequence data", 10.1675/1524-4695(2005)28[9:aootaw]2.0.co;2, "Phylogenetic Analysis of Pelecaniformes (Aves) Based on Osteological Data: Implications for Waterbird Phylogeny and Fossil Calibration Studies", "Zoological Nomenclature Resource: Pelecaniformes (Version 2.003)", 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T22697599A119401118.en, "Nomenclatural and Taxonomic Status of Fossil Birds Described by H. G. L. Reichenbach in 1852", "A New Species of Pelican (Aves: Pelecanidae) from the Lower Pliocene of North Carolina and Florida", "Brown Pelican breeding and nesting habits", "Functional Aspects of the Pneumatic System of the California Brown Pelican", "New fossil records of pelicans (Aves: Pelecanidae) from New Zealand", "Induced Drag Savings From Ground Effect and Formation Flight in Brown Pelicans", "Does a Pelican's Bill Hold More Than its Belly Can? [116], Elizabeth I of England adopted the symbol, portraying herself as the "mother of the Church of England". [36], The pink-backed pelican has a large population ranging over much of sub-Saharan Africa. The pelican consequently prepared to go to war against them by daubing himself with white clay as war paint. The former UCLA star has shown some signs through the first four games. [74] More recently, such predation at South African seabird colonies has impacted on the conservation of threatened seabird populations, especially crowned cormorants, Cape cormorants, and bank cormorants. An older version of the myth is that the pelican used to kill its young then resurrect them with its blood, again analogous to the sacrifice of Jesus. DNA sequencing of both mitochondrial and nuclear genes yielded quite different relationships; the three New World pelicans formed one lineage, with the American white pelican sister to the two brown pelicans, and the five Old World species the other. The male brings the nesting material, in ground-nesting species (which may not build a nest) sometimes in the pouch, and in tree-nesting species crosswise in the bill. [3], Parents of ground-nesting species sometimes drag older young around roughly by the head before feeding them. The diet of pelicans usually consists of fish,[51] but occasionally amphibians, turtles, crustaceans, insects, birds, and mammals are also eaten.

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