Mouth strongly oblique.

Scales ctenoid or cycloid. Pelvic fin 1 spine, 5 soft rays.

Three spines in anal fin, soft rays usually 13 or 14. Banjosidae - (Banjofishes) Distribution: North Atlantic and North Pacific.

Vertebrae 21-23. Body compressed; usually elongated to anguilliform in Chaenopsis.

Some of the most enigmatic cases includes ‘Cichlasoma’ urophthalmus, of which Hubbs (1936) described numerous subspecies. Juveniles enter fresh water in spring and spend the rest of their lives there.





Slightly emarginate caudal fin. 7463).

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Typically elongate with long dorsal and anal fins; eyes often positioned high on the head and usually with supraorbital cirri; cirri also often present near the nape, usually on the anterior nostril, variously on the posterior nostril, and near one or more of the preoperculomandibular sensory canal pores; with a spinous process on the sphenotic; the insertion of the hyomandibula relatively far posterior, well separated from the posterior margin of the orbit; the distal portion of the median-fin spines unossified in some; coracoid reduced and fused to the cleithrum; interopercle reduced in size, often not extending past the posterior end of the posterior ceratohyal; incisoriform teeth; the urohyal with 2 lateral projections on each side and strong ligamentous attachments to the respective hypohyals; adult males often with fleshy rugosities on the anal-fin spines; the lateral line on the body mostly reduced or even absent (Ref. The northernmost species are Herichthys cyanoguttatus from the lower Rio Grande drainage in Texas, USA, on the Atlantic coast, and ‘Cichlasoma beani’, which reaches north to the Río Yaquí on the Pacific coast of Mexico.

A formal classification down to tribe is provided by Kullander (1988).



Postcleithrum 1.

Most occurring in shallow coastal marine waters, in rocky intertidal areas, coral reefs, mangroves, oyster beds and in the lower reaches of most rivers (Ref.

Rounded caudal fin.



Forehead steep and high in adult males.

Subocular shelf absent. Distribution: Indo-Pacific. Centrogenyidae - (False scorpionfishes) Much of Pellegrin’s efforts with the Neotropical taxa were improved upon by Regan’s series of generic revisions in the next two years (Regan, 1905-1906), which remained the platform for all Neotropical cichlid systematics until the 1980s. It is called a torrentfish for it lives in tumbling white waters usually in large rivers with gravel and boulders and a broad bed.

Dorsal fin high with long base, origin on head; anal fin with 17 to 22 elements (spines lost); pectoral fins with 16 to 21 rays (Ref.



Cornea folding in at junction of skin and cornea. Distinguished in having a relatively long palatine compared to the length of the vomer; rather than proximal, the post-temporal ventral arm is free from the neurocranium; the posterior portion of the lateral line lacking embedded, tubed scales; long upper jaw in both sexes, surpassing the posterior margin of the orbit; the insertion of the hyomandibula on the neurocranium is shifted posteriorly away from the orbit; the sphenotic bearing a small lateral spine; dorsal arm of the scapula reduced and free from the cleithrum (except Mccoskerichthys and at least one species of Neoclinus); unbranched caudal-fin rays (Ref. They may have been derived from dermal scales. Suggested new common name for this family from Ref. 3.

Nostrils tubular, one pair (posterior absent). Feed on small benthic invertebrates.



Vertebrae 26-28. Pellegrin (1904) revised the family with diagnoses of all genera and species known to him. Anal fin 21-41 soft rays.

Number of species: 26 (Ref.

Caudal fin separate or joined to dorsal and anal fins in varying degrees. The fish has a heavy body and broad head that is flattened on the ventral surface. ), Lates (9 spp.) Pectoral rays 10-18, unbranched. Channidae - (Snakeheads)

Operculum and suboperculum without spines. Channidae - (Snakeheads) Oviparous. About 1.2 m maximum length. Cichlids are known by family or genus-level local names, commonly with an adjective to distinguish well-marked species.

Conical or villiform jaw teeth. Most of these are now recognized in well-diagnosed genera (Kullander, 1986, 1996, Kullander & Hartel, 1997), but several are kept with the generic denomination ‘Cichlasoma’ which is judged better than to include them in genera to which they certainly do not belong.

All these taxa are herein treated as valid for want of any better option.

Attains 1.5 m maximum length. Subfamilies: Amioidinae Fraser & Mabuchi, 2014; Apogoninae Günther, 1859; Paxtoninae Fraser & Mabuchi, 2014; Pseudamiinae Smith, 1954.

Vomerine teeth present. Palatine and vomer toothless; caudal fin rounded; rounded lobes on anal and second dorsal fins giving fish the appearance of having three tails; dorsal fin with 12 spines and 15-16 soft rays; 24 vertebrae. 54714).

CLOFFSCA: Caudal-fin rays unbranched. Most taxa are in the interval 10-20 cm, however.

The very young camouflage themselves by turning sideways and floating like leaves. and Psammoperca (1 sp.)

7463); marine and estuarine, rarely freshwater (Ref. About 1 m maximum length.

[59] Findings such as these have prompted reconsideration of the once-debunked gill-arch theory. Attain total lengths of 31-127 cm. Clinidae - (Clinids) Colored olive brown to dull red, bluish black or purplish with vivid green, blue, yellow, red, orange and white bars and spots or other markings, varying somewhat by population or between the sexes.

Axillary scale at base of pelvics. Body mostly compressed and moderately elongate except one species Anarrhichthys ocellatus, is extremely elongate and for its shape goes by the common name wolf-eel.

7463).

1.

Mainly temperate in both southern and northern hemispheres (Ref. Live specimens with exceedingly beautiful colors. Family content changed since Ref. On the Pacific slope, cichlids are found in a succession of permanent rivers south to the Río Jequetepeque or perhaps even to slightly south of Lima, Peru.



Anal fin lacking spines; soft rays 28-32. Live specimens with exceedingly beautiful colors.

Sensory pores on top of head and cheeks usually distinct. The southern limit of the family in South America is not well documented, but may be in the lower Río Negro in Argentina, which river marks the northern limit of Patagonia. Important food fishes. Dorsal fins separate. 5.

Infraorbital ossicle next to lachrymal (infraorbital 2) lost.

7463).

Some with the distal portion of the median-fin spines unossified (Ref. There is considerable variation in the shape and of the toothplates and associated dentition, reflecting diet specializations.

Lateral line absent, or not more than 3 pores behind operculum. 95070). Spawning takes place in open water near the surface. Nasal bones paired.

Most Neotropical cichlids occupy lentic habitats within rivers and streams; but there is also a number of moderately to strongly adapted rheophilic species. Coius cobojius the type species of Coius has been assigned to Anabas.

A fish can have up to three dorsal fins.

Cephalic mechanosensory canals not opening to the outside. Head profile steep and nearly straight.

Suggested new common name for this family in a coming ref. Branchiostegal rays 5-7. CodyCross is an addictive game developed by Fanatee.

Pelagic spawners. Maxilla hidden from external view. Lateral line 33-73 scales. Continuous dorsal fin, either with 0-5 feeble spines graduating to soft rays or 5-9 stout and much shorter spines not graduating to soft rays.

58418. Vertebrae 26-28.



Lateral line 33-73 scales. Dorsal fin bipartite (either deeply notched or with a distinct gap); with 7 or 8 spines on the first part; 1 spine and 8-11 soft rays on the second.

Lateral line distinct, running high on body and nearly straight to end of dorsal fin, with 75-105 scales.



Such rivers are unstable, their beds shift during floods.

7. Scales in lateral lines may be over 100, usually 20-50. Introduced into many areas outside native range.

Head rough, often with spines.

Steindachner (1875) worked on the Thayer expedition collection of Amazonian cichlids, but did not add much beyond the work of Heckel. Swim bladder absent.

Gill membranes united to isthmus. The unpaired lower pharyngeal toothplate and the opposed upper pharyngeal tooth plates are contained in a muscular sling characterizing labroid fishes. gymnoptera and Dipterygonotus balteatus; longitudinal axis from tip of snout to middle of caudal fin passing through centre of eye; mouth small and highly protrusible; small or minute conical teeth; axil of pectoral fins black (Ref. A few species largely scaleless, except for lateral line scales which is always present.

Branchiostegal rays 5-7.

The southern limit of the family in South America is not well documented, but may be in the lower Río Negro in Argentina, which river marks the northern limit of Patagonia. 7. Anal spines at least 3. Cichlids are absent from the Río Marañón above the Pongo de Manseriche and from the Río Ucayali drainage upstream of Atalaya (the mouth of the Río Urubamba [Río Vilcanota] and Río Tombo [Río Apurimac]). Separate gill membranes.

Recent generic revisions cover Crenicichla (Ploeg, 1991; innumerable errors and inconsistencies), Gymnogeophagus (Reis & Malabarba, 1988), Apistogramma (Kullander, 1980, somewhat outdated), Cichlasoma (Kullander, 1983), Teleocichla (Kullander, 1988), Retroculus (Gosse, 1971), Geophagus s. lato (Gosse, 1976, somewhat outdated), Biotoecus (Kullander, 1989), and Mesonauta (Kullander & Silfvergrip, 1991). Attain total lengths of 31-127 cm. Gill membranes not united to isthmus, projecting far forward. Pale brown above and cream-colored below, with or without spots; or uniformly pink or red. Adults with the lower 4-7 pectoral rays usually thickened, elongated, and free.

Cephalic mechanosensory canals not opening to the outside. A lateral line is present with about 50scales along its length.

Gut coiled several times.

On the Pacific slope, cichlids are found in a succession of permanent rivers south to the Río Jequetepeque or perhaps even to slightly south of Lima, Peru.

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