The effect is less for higher frequencies in the microwave region, as well as lasting a shorter time – the effect falls off both in strength and the affected frequencies as the fireball cools and the electrons begin to re-form onto free nuclei. This is one-third less time than the previous approximate calculation. Thyroid Exposure Depending on their energy, betas are completely absorbed by 1 mm to 1 cm of tissue. Air pressure reaches 25 psi and wind speed reaches 650 mph. At any particular site, the fallout deposition will last no more than several hours. Further complicating matters, under global nuclear war scenarios, with conditions similar to that during the Cold War, major strategically important cities, like Moscow, and Washington are likely to be hit not once, but numerous times from sub megaton multiple independently targetable re-entry vehicles, in a cluster bomb or "cookie-cutter" configuration. If the effect occurs at ground zero the ground range can be derived from slant range and burst altitude (Pythagorean theorem). The fusion reactions used in bombs and prospective powerplant designs are simple, and extremely fast - which is essential since the fuel must be fully consumed within microseconds.  In contrast, the unknown person sitting outside, fully exposed, on the steps of the Sumitomo Bank, next door to the Bank of Japan, received lethal third-degree burns and was then likely killed by the blast, in that order, within two seconds. Located at the center, it will experience an extremely violent shock wave that will heat it to high temperatures but compress it only modestly, increasing its density by a factor of 4 or so. More total energy is required to inflict a given level of damage for a larger bomb than a smaller one since the heat is emitted over a longer period of time, but this is more than compensated for by the increased thermal output.
Three units of measurement have been commonly used for expressing radiation exposure: roentgens (R), rads, rems, the "three r's" of radiation measurement.
This makes it difficult to detect additional mutations unless the rate is also high. If the material is a poor thermal conductor, the heat is confined to the surface of the material. The largest bomb ever exploded had a yield of 50 Mt, almost all produced by its final fusion stage.
In a 1-km (0.6-mile) radius, the peak pressure is four times that amount, and wind speeds can reach 756 km/h (470 mph). At the higher temperatures achievable by fusion, reaction 4 exceeds the combined rate of reactions 2 and 3.
 The vast majority of the energy that goes on to form the fireball is in the soft X-ray region of the electromagnetic spectrum, with these X-rays being produced by the inelastic collisions of the high-speed fission and fusion products. Both external exposure to penetrating radiation, and internal exposure (ingestion of radioactive material) pose serious health risks. When it passes through air it simply grows weaker.
This can be made clear by conducting a thought-experiment. Had atmospheric nuclear testing continued the US might have tested a 100-megaton weapon half the weight of Big Ivan—light enough to actually fight with. The range for significant levels of initial radiation does not increase markedly with weapon yield and, as a result, the initial radiation becomes less of a hazard with increasing yield. Vision is completely recovered as the pigment is regenerated, a process that takes several seconds to several minutes.
This concept was pioneered by Philip J. Dolan and others. The capture of neutrons by nitrogen-14 also produces gammas, a process completed by 100 milliseconds. , With medical attention, radiation exposure is survivable to 200 rems of acute dose exposure.
Long term radiation exposure results from residing in a fallout contaminated area for an extended period (external exposure), consuming food produced in a contaminated area (internal exposure), or both.
Beta particles are less penetrating, they can travel through several meters of air, but not walls, and can cause serious injury to organisms that are near to the source. The blast wave deposits energy in the material it passes through, including air. Air is essentially transparent to thermal radiation. Like Russia's gigantic Tsar Bell and Tsar Cannon, this would be the Tsar Bomb. Weather conditions can affect this considerably of course. Conflagrations can spread considerable distances from their origins. The fraction of a bomb's yield emitted as thermal radiation, blast, and ionizing radiation are essentially constant for all yields, but the way the different forms of energy interact with air and targets vary dramatically. Rammanohav, Reddy C. Effects of a Nuclear Bomb Attack. With increasing yields, they reach farther from the zone of intense destruction. This reaction can be used by simply allowing the fission explosion to heat up the fuel to fusion temperatures, requiring at most modest compression by the fission reaction itself. About 10% of the human population has detectable genetic disorders (most are not serious). tamper; basically empty, often filled with plastic foam), Fusion Pusher/Tamper (high-Z material: natural/depleted uranium, Localized acute exposure is important for two organs: the skin, and the thyroid gland.
There are four types of ionizing radiation produced by nuclear explosions that can cause significant injury: neutrons, gamma rays, beta particles, and alpha particles. A potentially significant secondary source is neutron capture by non-radioactive isotopes both within the bomb and in the outside environment. The measure of effect for a given radiation is its Radiation Biological Effect (RBE). The transport of energy by radiation from the fission core greatly exceeds the core's expansion rate (a mere 1000 km/sec or so).
The rate of multiplication can be calculated from the multiplication coefficient k given by: When k = 1 an assembly is exactly critical and a chain reaction will be self supporting, although it will not increase in rate. A general guide is given below: Ionizing radiation produces injury primarily through damage to the chromosomes.
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