However, you can track information about the execution of an implicit cursor through its cursor attributes.

Example 6-34 Declaration of Cursor Variables in a Package. At run time, PL/SQL raises ROWTYPE_MISMATCH if the return types of the actual and formal parameters are incompatible.

Once started, an autonomous transaction is fully independent. In this tutorial, you have learned how to use PL/SQL cursor variables with REF CURSOR type. Used with ROLLBACK, SAVEPOINT undoes part of a transaction. While one user has an exclusive lock on a table, no other users can insert, delete, or update rows in that table. It looks like you're new here. Using a subquery in the FROM clause, the query in Example 6-20 returns the number and name of each department with five or more employees.

Oracle can also roll back single SQL statements to break deadlocks. To define autonomous transactions, you use the pragma (compiler directive) AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION.

In Example 6-13, you bulk-fetch from a cursor into two collections.

This option specifies the priority with which the redo information generated by the commit operation is written to the redo log. But why-ever would you be doing that, when you can use BULK COLLECT and fetch 100+ rows at a time, greatly improving … This form of cursor variable called strong typed REF CURSOR because the cursor variable is always associated with a specific record structure, or type. The main transaction shares its context with nested routines, but not with autonomous transactions.

For example, you can declare a cursor variable on the client side, open and fetch from it on the server side, then continue to fetch from it back on the client side.

The scope of a savepoint is the transaction in which it is defined. For each column value returned by the query associated with the cursor, there must be a corresponding, type-compatible variable in the INTO list. Bulk collect into is loaded into memory, and after processing business logic, forall is batched into the data table. The SELECT statement for the query can be coded directly in the statement, or can be a string variable or string literal. Note that consecutive OPENs of a static cursor raise the predefined exception CURSOR_ALREADY_OPEN. A function called from SQL statements must obey certain rules meant to control side effects.

FORALL, used to enhance the exchange of PL/SQL engine to SQL engine. When one transaction ends, the next SQL statement begins another transaction. Cursor expressions cannot appear in view declarations. This technique lets you join a table with a small set of rows from another table, instead of joining the entire tables. At run time, PL/SQL raises the predefined exception ROWTYPE_MISMATCH before the first fetch. For information on the SQL COMMIT, SAVEPOINT, and ROLLBACK statements, see the Oracle Database SQL Reference. If a DML statement affects zero rows, the values of the OUT binds after the DML executes are undefined.

PL/SQL has two forms of REF CURSOR typeS: strong typed and weak typed REF CURSOR.

You use the COMMIT, ROLLBACK, SAVEPOINT, and SET TRANSACTION commands to control transactions. Oracle uses locks to control concurrent access to data, and locks only the minimum amount of data necessary, for as little time as possible.

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